Vitamin Main Sources Stability Role Deficiency
A Animal products
● Liver
● Egg yolk
● Butter
● Whole milk
● Cheese
Vegetable products
in the form of carotenoids
(provitamin A)
● Certain fruits (i.e. Lemon,
● Green leafy vegetables
(i.e. Spinach, broccoli)
● Carrots
● Pumpkins
● Palm oil
Sensitive to
● oxidants
● light
● heat
● acids
● Plays a role in mechanisms required for
sight (11-cis retinal is the chromophore
in the visual cycle)
● Essential for growth and development
● Required for healthy skin, epithelia and
● Effects on certain endocrine glands
● Important for fertility
● Essential for proper immune functions
● provitamin A
● Biological antioxidant
Deficiency still common in South- East Asia,
Central America and certain regions of Africa
Susceptible population groups
● Pregnant and lactating women
● Populations suffering from poor nutrition
(i.e. Only rice, corn, potatoes as staple
● Delayed growth and development
● Night- blindness
● Ocular lesions and xerophthalmia
● Cutaneous lesions (dry and rough skins)
● Impaired immune functions
● Destructions of epithelial tissue (i.e. in
lungs, intestines urinary tract, genitals)

Animal products(main sources
of D3)
● Oily fish
● Egg yolk
Plants Products(main sources
of D2)
● Mushrooms
Synthesized in the skin by the
action of ultraviolet light
Vitamin D3 is superior to
vitamin D2 in increasing and
maintaining 25(OH) D serum
Sensitive to
● oxidants
● light
● acids
● Regulation of metabolism of calcium
● Essential for normal bone development
and maintenance
● Plays a role in innate immunity by
stimulating immune cells proliferation
and cytokine production
● Rickets in children
● Osteomalacia in adults
● Osteoporosis
E Animal products
● Milk
● Butter
● Eggs
Vegetable products
● Vegetable oils
● Cereal germ
● Vegetables (i.e.. spinach,
lettuce, cabbage )
Sensitive to
● oxidants
● light
● heat
● bases
Stable in the
presence of
● acids
● reducing agents
● Biological antioxidant
● Protects lipids, proteins and DNA from
oxidation and thereby contributes to
cellular health
● Assists fertility
Susceptible population groups
● Newborn babies, particularly premature
● Individuals unable to efficiently absorb fats
from the intestine
● Leads to destruction of red blood cells
● Long- term impact includes muscle and
connective tissue diseases.

Animal products(main
sources of K2)
● Some dietary products (i.e.
cheese and curd cheese)
● Meat includes liver
Vegetable products
● Green vegetables (i.e. parsley,
spinach, cauliflower )
Sensitive to
● oxidants
● light
● bases
stable in the
presence of
● heat
● Essential anti-haemorrhaging agent
(promotes blood clotting )
● Helps to maintain bone health
● Emerging evidence for potential role in
cardiovascular health
Susceptible population groups
● Newborn babies (due to lack of intake)
● Absorption deficiency impaired use are
responsible for haemorrhage